We all want the same things for our kids \u2013 for them to grow up to be happy, to follow their dreams, and to find success. But just how much can we do to pave way for these to happen? Lee Shen-Li shares her findings. As a parent, the scariest part of raising a child would have to be the teenage years. With external influences like peer relationships, exposure to drugs, alcohol and members of the opposite sex, you practically get the working ingredients for a Molotov cocktail straight into your hands. So my two boys are currently 18 months and four years old - surely all that is a long way away. Well, I believe it is never too early to worry about it. How can we raise children that are immune to negative peer influence? How do we help our children say \u201cno\u201d to drugs, or better yet \u2013 tell us if they have been approached about it? How do we make sure they can be sensible with alcohol, or better yet \u2013 be teetotallers? I would love to ban dating until they\u2019re 21 years old, but I\u2019m sure that\u2019s the best way to push it underground. If our children are going to get into trouble, wouldn\u2019t it be better to be the first person they turned to instead of the last? In order for this to happen, it is important to cultivate a strong relationship with our children, beginning as early in their lives as possible. Having a strong relationship with our children serves a purpose that is two-fold. Not only can we expect them to turn to us when they are in trouble, but children who have a deep respect for their parents are also more likely to hold the morals and values taught close to heart. How much influence does a parent really have? There are stories about children who came from abusive homes with a history so destructive that nothing good could come out of it, but some of them manage to rise above it all. These individuals show us that there are elements within a child that is unaffected by nurture. Science has managed to pinpoint three resiliency genes that protect these individuals from the stress and trauma experienced through life. Unfortunately, few are born with them. Then there are certain characteristics, such as a child\u2019s temperament, which do not change with parental influence. For instance, one in five babies is born naturally anxious. These babies are sensitive to their environments and are generally more explosive compared to other babies. No amount of nurture will change the fact that they will always be anxious. Although these factors are beyond our control, remember that 50% is nature and 50% is nurture. We do have some influence, even if it isn\u2019t as much as we would like. According to \u201cBrain Rules for Baby\u201d by John Medina, there are specific things we can do to increase our chances of raising children who: \thave better emotional regulation, calming themselves \tmore quickly; \thave the highest academic achievement; \tshow greater empathetic responses; \tshow greater loyalty to parents and have a higher compliance rate with parental wishes, the obedience coming from feelings of connection rather than fear; \thave fewer incidences of paediatric depression and \tanxiety disorders; \thave the fewest infectious diseases; \tare less prone to acts of violence; \thave deeper, richer friendships, and lots more of them. What can we do to increase our chances of raising such individuals? A study on families who raised terrific children revealed that there were six common practices amongst these families. They are: 1. Authoritative Parents One of the best known theories of parenting style was developed by Diana Baumrind. Baumrind\u2019s four styles of parenting looks at the way parents interacted with their children on two scales \u2013 how demanding\/undemanding they are of their children, and how responsive\/unresponsive they are with their children. The parents who raised the best children are the ones who are both demanding and responsive. These parents were labelled authoritative parents. The parents who raised the worst children were the ones who were undemanding and unresponsive. These parents were labelled neglectful. In between these two extremes were the authoritarian parents (demanding and unresponsive) and the indulgent parents (undemanding and responsive). Authoritarians are too hard. They are unresponsive and demanding, exerting power over their children. They do not try to explain their rules, do not project any warmth and their children are often afraid of them. Indulgent parents are too soft. They are responsive and undemanding. These parents love their children but are unable to make and enforce rules. They dislike confrontation and rarely demand compliance with family rules. Neglectful parents are too aloof. They are unresponsive and undemanding. These are the worst kind of parents because they care little about their children and are uninvolved in their children\u2019s day-to-day interactions. They provide only the most basic care. Authoritative parents are just right. Responsive and demanding, these are the best parents to have. Although they are demanding, they care a great deal about their children. They explain their rules and encourage their children to talk about their reactions to them. They encourage high levels of independence, but they also see that children comply with family values. These parents\u00a0 have terrific communication skills with their children. 2. Be Comfortable with Your Own Emotions \u201cMonkey see, monkey do\u201d. The same goes when it comes to parenting. Our children are watching us all the time and they imitate whatever behaviours we express. How we handle our emotions is one of the behaviours they will mimic. While most adults generally handle positive emotions well, negative emotions such as anger, sadness and fear are what we usually struggle with. We need to learn to be comfortable with our emotions, even the negative ones, and be consistent with our reactions to those emotions. I am usually comfortable with my negative emotions when we are in private, but a public scenario is when everything flies out of the window. Contrary behaviour, such as this, can be a source of confusion for children. 3. Track Your Child\u2019s Emotions It is important for us to be attentive to the emotional cues from our children and to respond appropriately. Just as it is essential to engage our children, it is equally important to know when to withdraw and give them space. Too much attention from a person (even someone that we love) can be stifling, making children less emotionally attached - so watch out for your child\u2019s cues and respect his need for space. 4. Label Emotions Toddlers often experience many big emotions they don\u2019t understand. The experience can be frightening because they feel out of control. Being able to label the emotion (verbalising the feeling) has been shown to have a neurologically calming effect for adults and children alike. Children who learn how to label their emotions become better at self-soothing, more focused on tasks, and have more successful peer relationships. 5. Face Your Child\u2019s Emotions, Do Not Judge Them Behaviours are choices, but emotions are not. It is important that we accept all the emotions that our children express. There is no such thing as a bad emotion. Do not discourage or ignore the expression of emotions because it teaches our children which feelings are okay and which are not. For example, a little girl might hit her baby sister because she feels threatened. Her parents should not make her brush away the feeling of being threatened as if it doesn\u2019t exist. What they need to focus on is to teach her positive ways to deal with the emotion and that hitting her baby sister is not the way. We\u2019re human and that makes us vulnerable to all kinds of emotions \u2013 anger, fear, sadness \u2013 whether we think it is appropriate or not. Expecting our children not to feel these emotions is like expecting them to be robots. What we should teach them is how to handle them. 6. Empathy Show your child empathy by repeating what he is feeling because it tells your child you understand his emotions. Empathy works because: Emotions are contagious. For example, a group of angry, violent protesters can spread the feeling of anger and violence causing such gatherings to get out of hand. Empathy is calming. Biological findings show that empathy triggers the vagus nerve to calm the body. The more empathy you show your child, the more empathic he will learn to be. For more advice on how to raise happy, confident and successful children, I recommend reading Brain Rules for Baby by John Medina, and The Complete Secrets of Happy Children by Steve Biddulph.